latest update: 2022-05-13 (NOTE:   or  means added or revised in the last 30 days)

author: Hans Teijgeler 


"We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them." -Albert Einstein


revised 20211219

revised 20210815

Tutorial, detailing 'ISO 15926 on a page'

Latest update
ISO 15926 Portal - An overview with references to topics below (and others)  11 Jan 2021
Management Summary

Management Summary about ISO 15926 - A summary in 644 words, highlighting what it is about
3 April 2019
Data and Information - How data are being grouped to represent information
25 Dec 2020
Data Model

ISO 15926-2 Foundation Model - an ISO-standard, highly generic, data model with 201 entity types that is the Top Level Ontology of ISO 15926    
6 Feb 2015
ISO 15926-2 Model in Turtle format - where the Foundation Model is in Express format, here is the result of a mapping to Turtle
7 Nov 2016
ISO 15926-2 Foundation Model in FOL - a First-Order Logic rendering of the Part 2 model
28 Nov 2019
ISO 15926-2 model extensions - some entity types, like Person, Organization, are not listed in ISO 15926-2 and are added here 
24 July 2020
ISO 15926-2 cheat sheet - another presentation of the ISO 15926-2 data model, inclusive the proposed extensions thereof  

22 April 2022
Possible Worlds - how modal logic is avoided, an essential prerequisite for a Digital Twin
26 April 2018
Temporal Parts - a cornerstone of ISO 15926 for life-cycle information integration  25 April 2022
About Cardinalities - The difference in cardinality definition is explained and how this is has been "repaired" 12 April 2022
Ontologies - There are three locations in the ISO 15926 stack where an ontology can be built, as an extension of the two ISO 15926-2 Upper Ontologies  25 April 2022
Templates as ontologies - templates are small ontologies, based on the Upper Ontology defined in ISO 15926-2 - from concept to implementation  25 April 2022
Object Models and the RDL - An example of how to build object models in the RDL (this has not been done so far)
7 Jan 2019
Life cycle of a Class- where a Class is eternal, its applicability is not always that, a way to describe the "life cycle" of a (Part 2)  11 Jan 2021
Reference Data

Reference Data - overview - The Reference Data Library, based on ISO 15926-4, stores concepts that are widely used in the user community.
6 Nov 2019
How does pump P-101 fit in? - An example of how the proverbial pump P-101 fits in ISO 15926-2, -4. and -7.
11 Jan 2021
How do Instruments & Controls fit in? - Instrumentation has many functions; this topic shows how this is handled in the RDL (needs rework) 19 July 2020

Templates - an introduction - the concept of templates, as defined in ISO 15926-7 and -8, is discussed briefly. 
9 Nov 2019
Symbols for graphs - the symbols, as used in the Template Specifications, are explained here.
8 April 2013
Redefinition of the Template Model - a proposal for the replacement of the flawed template model in ISO 15926-8.
8 Feb 2020
Methodology for Template Selection - a decision tree for an SME (Subject Matter Expert) to select the applicable ISO 15926 template.
26 Mar 2015
ISO 15926-7 Proto-templates - Proto-templates provide a layer of abstraction above the relational entity types of ISO 15926-2 by hiding the reified relationships of ISO 15926-2.
14 Nov 2013
Templates for Activity - activity models are used to describe processes and also human activities. 

11 April 2022
Templates for Documents - a set of templates that cover the many variables related to modeling documents and information
14 Nov 2019
TIPs - Templates of Information Pattern - a TIP helps in directly mapping a data field in a data base table, spreadsheet, intelligent diagram, etc to an ISO 15926-8 exchange file
22 Dec 2018

Process Design - the "cradle" of the plant life cycle.
23 Aug 2020
Plant Life-cycle Model - a "back bone" model of all typical placeholders of plant life-cycle information.
10 April 2021
LSN (Life-cycle Stages Network) - a representation of the Plant Life-cycle Model in ISO 15926-7/8 templates. This is, for each plant item, the skeleton for its life-cycle information  28 Sept. 2021
The role of functional objects - the rationale for having them as intended and not as pseudo-physical-objects.
9 July 2017
Functional vs Physical Object - how a physical object gets its function defined.
31 Mar 2019
Document Types and DocumentDefinition - with a DocumentDefinition the required contents type can be defined for one or more Document Types (=ClassOfInformationObject)
1 April 2019
Breakdown Structures - Activity Breakdown Structure (ABS), Function Breakdown Structure (FBS), Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), and Organization Breakdown Structure (OBS).
9 July 2017
Catalog options - in product catalogs we often see "options"  4 Aug 2021
Equations and Variables - detailed explanation about how an equation for a Unit Operation can be modeled and how data can be linked to variables in that equation.
11 Nov 2018
2D and 3D symbols on documents - a way to represent a document, that contains 2D or 3D symbols, with templates.
25 Nov 2014

Mapping Procedure - A procedure starting with some data and ending with declarations and template instances. 

10 April 2022
About Addresses - Some thoughts about addressing plant items
12 April 2022
Mapping of a P&ID - Piping & Instrument Diagrams are the core documents of any plant; the mapping of an example is discussed.
26 June 2018
Mapping of the API 610 data sheet for centrifual pump - from the official API data sheet to ISO 15926-8 code, thereby using TIPs (needs rework)
8 May 2018
Mapping of a functional design of a control loop - functional design of a control loop is based on instances of FunctionalObject that are indirectly connected by signals.
23 June 2018
Mapping of a Line List - using a number of templates a complete mapping of a Line List has been detailed.
1 June 2019
Mapping of structured documents - a document model is completely detailed.
12 Sept 2017
The role of the (Asset) Requirements Class - All requirements are classes of which the TAG is a member and of which the implementing real-world EQUIPMENT shall be a member.  13 May 2022
Mixing data and documents - this topic gives, at a conceptual level, a solution for the integration of data, that are being mapped, and documents.
25 Oct 2016
Mapping provenance data - this topic shows how meta information can be mapped to object properties in lifted templates or in templates about lowered templates.
15 Oct 2014
Background Information

Part 8 compliance - this topic shows that the implementation of ISO 15926-8, as set forth in the Topics on this website, is in line with same Part 8.
25 Oct 2016
Inverse properties for inheritance and performance - the advantages of adding InverseProperties are being discussed.
8 May 2018
Acronyms for Part 2 entity types - although not much in use anymore, here they are for the tenacious few.
19 May 2015

Declaring an object - It is mandatory to declare all things, except Literals, in this part of ISO 15926. This is telling how.
6 Jan 2020
Data Integration - a way to achieve life-cycle data integration (needs rework) (needs rework) 5 Nov 2019
Effectivity & Deprecation - shows how the beginning and ending of the validity of information is implemented.
8 May 2018
Querying with SPARQL - in this topic a number of queries will be demonstrated.
20 April 2014
Information Sets - sets of templates represent information for a certain purpose, including the information content of a document is some revision.
21 Dec 2018
A scenario for Lifecycle Information Integration - the aim of ISO 15926 is "Integration, sharing, exchange, and hand-over of distributed Plant Lifecycle Information."; this topic gives a possible scenario.
21 Dec 2018
Validating RDF data with SHACL  - A first attempt to apply the new W3C Recommendation "Shapes Constraint Language (SHACL)", dated 20 July 2017,  to ISO 15926-7/8 data.
21 Dec 2018
CFIHOS life-cycle data model - a recommendation for a data model that is easier to map to ISO 15926 

10 Mar 2021
CFIHOS Data Model and Reference Data - turned into a data base (needs rework)
27 Mar 2020
Mapping CFIHOS data model -1 - first a rendering to RDF, and from then a mapping to ISO 15927-7/8 templates 30 Jan 2021
Mapping CFIHOS data model-2 - all details for an ETL-based mapping.
16 Feb 2021